The assessment of pelvic statics in patients with spinal overload syndrome treated in whole-body cryotherapy.

Findings: Whole-body cryotherapy applied together with kinesitherapy was effective in reducing pressure pain in the ligaments (average 20%) and tension in significant pelvic muscles (average 30%). The cryotherapy and kinesitherapy combination applied to the treatment of spinal overload syndrome gives satisfactory clinical outcome.

Cold chamber exposures (–67,3°C, 3min) in Fibromyalgia Syndromes

Findings: It is concluded that cold chamber exposures have an analgesic effect in patients suffering from fibromyalgia and that in addition the thermal tolerance is increased

Whole-body cryotherapy in patients with inflammatory rheumatic disease. A prospective study.

Findings: For patients with rheumatoid arthritis, a significant reduction of DAS28 (Disease Activity Score) and VAS (visual analog scale) measures were seen after an average of 63 days with p<0.01. In ankylosing spondylitis patients, the BASDAI (Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index) was analysed and showed a significant reduction (p = 0.01). Significant pain relief also allowed more intensive physiotherapy.

Cryotherapy in Osteoporosis

Findings: Cryotherapy reduces pain and swelling, results in skeletal muscle relaxation and has been shown to increase the range of motion in joint disorders. There are relatively few contra-indications, and treatments are short and convenient, and improve ability to do physical therapy. It provides a useful modality for rehabilitation and prevention of osteoporosis.

Whole-body cryotherapy as adjunct treatment of depressive and anxiety disorders

Findings: After three weeks of whole body cryotherapy, a decrease of at least 50% from the baseline of the Hamilton’s depression rating scale (17 scores) in 34.6% of the study group and 2.9% of the control group were found, a decrease of at least 50% from the baseline Hamilton’s anxiety rating scale score in 46.2% of the study group and in none of the control group were found.

Thermal, circulatory and neuromuscular responses to Whole Body Cryotherapy

Findings: An acute increase in the high frequency power (HFP) of RR-intervals induced by WBC indicated an increase in cardiac parasympathetic modulation, but after repeated WBC the increase was attenuated. The repeated WBC exposure-related increase in resting low frequency power (LFP) of RR-intervals resembles the response observed related to exercise training

Clinical relevance of cryotherapy

Findings: WBC stimulates the sympathetic nervous system via alpha-adrenergic receptors, causing peripheral vasoconstriction. This induces adaptive changes with effects of analgesia, reduction of inflammation, and increases in serum markers of tissue repair. The largest focuses of research are in sport’s recovery and performance, along with adjuvant treatment in multiple sclerosis, depression and cardiovascular health.

The influence of whole body cryotherapy followed by relaxing gymnastics on bone turnover and muscular function in elderly women

Findings: 62 elderly women were exposed to WBC in combination with physiotherapy for 6 weeks and compared with a healthy women. Results showed a statistically significant changes in bone turnover markers: decreased serum osteocalcin and increased carboxyterminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP). Improvements in muscle function were attributed to physiotherapy.

Evaluation of effectiveness of whole-body cryotherapy in patients with tinnitus

Findings: The results indicates complete elimination of tinnitus in 4 patients, decrease in their intensity in 47 patients, maintenance of the ailment on the same level in 13 people and slightly increase of tinnitus in 16 patients. After treatment decrease of average hearing loss and average hearing damage were observed. Treatment of tinnitus may be effective by using whole-body cryotherapy.

The Effect of Three Different (-135˚C) Whole Body Cryotherapy Exposure Durations on Elite Rugby League Players

Findings: Three brief exposures to WBC separated by 1 week are not sufficient to induce physiological changes in IL-6 or core temperature. There are however significant changes in tissue oxyhaemoglobin, deoxyhaemoglobin, tissue oxygenation index, skin temperature and thermal sensation. We conclude that a 2 minute WBC exposure was the optimum exposure length at temperatures of -135˚C and could be applied as the basis for future studies.

The effect of submiximal exercise preceded by single wbct on markers of oxidative stress and inflammation in blood of volleyball players

Findings: The obtained results may suggest that cryotherapy prior to exercise may have some antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The relations between the level of studied oxidative stress and inflammatory markers may testify to the contribution of reactive oxygen species in cytokines release into the blood system in response to exercise and WBC.

Thermal and hemodynamic response to whole-body cryostimulation in healthy subjects

Findings: A study in 30 healthy subjects showed that immediately post- WBC there was decreased heart rate and cardiac output, and increased stroke volume, total peripheral resistance and baroreceptor reflex sensitivity. At 3 h and 6 h after WBC there was a significant drop in baroreceptor reflex sensitivity due to increased thermogenesis. There were no significant increases in BP.

Effects of whole-body cryotherapy in the management of adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder.

Findings: Significant improvements were seen in both groups in terms of range of movement, and on patients scores for overall improvement (using VAS). A statistically significant difference in all outcomes was seen in the groups who combined WBC with physiotherapy: clinically measured ROMS, pain and function: clinically measured ROM., pain and function. VAS and ASES scores were also significantly improved.

Beneficial effects of Whole Body Cryotherapy on sport heamolysis

Findings: We observed in the athletes increase of haptoglobin and an increase of MSCV after the treatment period. Conclusions. WBC reduces sports haemolysis, as judged from MSCV and haptoglobin data, supported from other haematological values, as well as the absence of mean corpuscolar volume and reticulocytes increase. The treatment is useful to prevent the physiological impairments derived from sport haemolysis.

Five-Day Whole-Body Cryostimulation, Blood Inflammatory Markers, and Performance in HighRanking Professional Tennis Players

Findings: Professional tennis players experienced an intensified inflammatory response after the completed tournament season, which may lead to overreaching. Applying whole- body cryostimulation in conjunction with moderate-intensity training was more effective for the recovery process than the training itself. The 5-day exposure to cryostimulation twice a day ameliorated the cytokine profile, resulting in a decrease in pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-a, and an increase in anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin 6.

A proposed study for alzheimer prevention

Findings: There are a number of theories as to why WBC could have be preventative of Alzheimer’s. Most important concepts: reactive oxygen species as a consequence of inflammation can lead to disruption of the blood brain barrier, neuronal loss and cognitive decline. Oxidative stress can lead to deposition of amyloid-ß plaques. In addition, hypothermia has been shown to be neuroprotective.

Bone remodelling biomarkers after whole body cryotherapy (WBC) in elite rugby players

Findings: Bone biomarkers (OPG, RANK, RANKL) as indicators of bone turnover rate were measured in 10 elite rugby players after a week of WBC treatments. OPG was statistically significantly increased, as was the OPG/RANKL ration, indicating new bone formation and an osteogenic effect.

The effect of whole-body cryostimulation on the activity of lysosomal enzymes in kayaker women after intense exercise

Findings: The common marker of muscle damage like creatine kinase remains unchanged and the stress hormone—cortisol shows only a decreasing tendency after the WBC. Nevertheless, we found significant changes in activity of lysosomal enzymes and activity of protease inhibitor, which are also accredited parameters of post-exercise changes in organism. Thus we propose that those proteins may be novel indicators of the effects of application of whole-body cryostimulation in sport recovery.

Effects of whole-body cryotherapy on a total antioxidative status and activities of antioxidative enzymes in blood of depressive multiple sclerosis patients

Findings: The effects of WBC in MS patients with depression (n=12) and those without depressive symptoms (n=10) were compared. At baseline, TAS was significantly lower in those with, rather than those without depressive symptoms. After a course of WBC, TAS was raised more in depressive than in non-depressive MS patients (p<0.002) with no significant effects on SOD and CAT in erythrocytes.

The effects of prolonged whole-body cryostimulation treatment with different amounts of sessions on chosen pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines levels

Findings: The analysis of results showed that in response to 20 sessions of whole body cryostimulation, the level of anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-10 increased while pro-inflammatory cytokine IL1-α level decreased. Maximum effect was achieved after the series of 20 sessions.

Time-course of changes in inflammatory response after Whole-Body Cryotherapy multi exposures following severe exercise

Findings: This randomised crossover design study compared passive recovery with WBCT for 96h post-exercise. Pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1 and CRP were decreased, and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1ra) increased when compared to PAS. TNF-a, IL-10 and IL-6 remain unchanged.

Effects of Whole-Body Cryotherapy vs. Far-Infrared vs. Passive Modalities on Recovery from Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage in Highly Trained Runners

Findings: Maximal muscle strength and perceived sensations were recovered after the first WBC session (post 1 h), while recovery took 24 h with FIR, and was not attained through the PAS recovery modality. No differences in plasma CK activity were recorded between conditions. Three WBC sessions performed within the 48 hours after a damaging running exercise accelerate recovery from EIMD to a greater extent than FIR or PAS modalities.

Influence of the ten sessions of the whole body cryostimulation on aerobic and anaerobic capacity

Findings: Participation in the whole body cryostimulation caused an increase in maximal anaerobic power in males (from 11.1 to 11.9 W×kg–1; P < 0.05), but not in females. It can be concluded that whole body cryostimulation can be beneficial, at least in males, for increasing anaerobic capacity in sport disciplines involving speed and strength.

Whole Body Cryotherapy in athletes

Findings: WBC has been shown to reduce sport-related haemolysis and reduce recovery time. There is no enhancement of bone marrow production and therefore no risk of breaking anti-doping rules. Inflammation is reduced, indicated by increased anti-inflammatory IL-10 and decreases in pro-inflammatory IL-2 and IL-8 as well as decrease in intercellular adhesion molecule-1 supported the anti-inflammatory response. Increases in noradrenaline relate to the body’s adaptation to stress.

The effects of Whole Body Cryotherapy on oxidative stress in multiple sclerosis

Findings: MS patients treated with WBC for 3 cycles had increases in TAS compared with healthy controls. MS patients treated with WBC in conjunction with an anti-oxidant in the form of 14 days of melatonin, also had significant increases in the activity of SOD and CAT measured in the erythrocytes.

Changes in lipid profile in response to three different protocols of whole-body cryostimulation treatments

Findings: Cold-induced thermoregulation is associated with an increase in lipid metabolism. Adipose tissues are activated during exposure to cold to generate heat. In a group of 69 healthy volunteers, increases in HDL, and decreases in total cholesterol, LDL and TG were seen only in the group exposed to more than 10 sessions of cryotherapy.

Effects of Whole Body Cryotherapy on serum mediators of inflammation and serum muscle enzymes in athletes

Findings: Muscle enzymes, creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LAD) levels significantly decreased after treatment. No alterations in immunological function were observed but there is a decrease in pro- inflammatory cytokine/chemokine and an increase in anti-inflammatory cytokine. As measured by changes in serum CK and LAD concentrations, and cytokines pathway, short-term cold air exposure was found to improve recovery from exercise-induced muscle injury and/or damage associated with intense physical training.

Cryotherapy decreases histamine levels in the blood of patients with rheumatoid arthritis

Findings: RA patients treated with WBC when compared with those treated with physiotherapy were shown to have reduced levels of histamine (which remained lower for 3 months after treatments were discontinued). Markers of neutrophil activation and cartilage metabolism were also decreased but not with statistical significance.

Do sessions of cryostimulation have influence on white blood cell count, level of IL6, and total oxidative and antioxidative status in healthy men?

Findings: After 10 whole body cryotherapy sessions a significant increase in WBC count, especially lymphocytes and monocytes was noted. There was an increase in level of IL6 after first and the last cryostimulation the most pronounced after tenth session. It was concluded that repeated expositions to extremely low temperatures use in cryostimulation have mobilization effect on immunological system.

Pain in the elderly: Prospective study of hyperbaric CO2 cryotherapy

Findings: Localised hyperbaric CO2 cryotherapy was used on 51 hospitalised patients with acute (n=23) or chronic (n=28) pain. 41 had musculoskeletal and 10 neuropathic pain. Significant pain reduction was seen in both acute (p < 0.001) and chronic (p < 0.001) groups. Pain relief in neuropathic pain was noted, but with too few patients to claim significant efficacy.

Whole body cryotherapy as a novel adjuvant therapy for depression and anxiety

Findings: Statistically significant improvements in symptoms of anxiety and depression were seen in patients after a course of 15 daily WBC treatments when compared with a control group taking medication alone. The Hamilton’s depression and Hamilton’s anxiety rating scales were used as the outcome measures, with all items other than gastrointestinal and genitourinary symptoms showing significant improvement.

Acute effect of a single whole-body cryostimulation on prooxidant–antioxidant balance in blood of healthy, young men

Findings: The level of stress expressed by total oxidative status in plasma, resulting from exposure to extremely low temperatures, was statistically significantly lowered 30min after leaving the cryochamber than prior to the exposure. The next day, the TOS level still remained lower than the initial values. The TAS level decreased after leaving the cryochamber and remained elevated the following day.

Whole-Body Cryotherapy Enhances Acute Recovery of Running-Performance in Well-Trained Athletes

Findings: WBC during 2 bouts of high-intensity exercise leads to improved performance (tlim) in thermoneutral conditions by increasing oxygenation to the working muscles, reduced cardiovascular strain (↓HR, ↓Oxygen consumption, ↓RPE) and increased work economy at submaximal intensities.

The effect of whole-body cryostimulation on the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in blood of elite kayakers after training

Findings: WBCT leads to generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress. Superoxide dismutas (SOD) was lower after the 6th day of WBCT, while glutathione peroxidase (Gpx) was lower after Day 10. A lower activity of the antioxidant enzymes along with decreased lipid peroxidation products after training with WBCT, may indicate decreased ROS. Oxidative stress triggers adaptations that protected kayakers against pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance during training.

Adapted cold shower as potential treatment for depression

Findings: The authors propose the hypothesis that extreme cold exposure activates the sympathetic nervous system with release of ß-endorphins and noradrenaline in the blood and brain. Cold receptors in the skin would also send overwhelming electrical impulses to the brain, which could result in an anti-depressive effect. Sufficiently powered studies would be needed to prove the hypothesis.

Heart rate variability in women exposed to very cold air (−110 °C) during whole-body cryotherapy

Findings: Heart rate variability is used as an indirect indicator of autonomic nervous system activity. This study demonstrates that acute increases in parasympathetic tone in response to WBCT is an adaptation of the autonomic nervous system, and mimics the response induced by physical exercise. In the same way, the WBCT-related acute responses are less prominent after 3 months of training.

The impact of whole-body cryotherapy on parameters of spinal mobility in patients with ankylosing spondylitis

Findings: Patients with ankylosing spondylitis exposed to WBC in conjunction with physiotherapy had greater improvements in spinal mobility, particularly in the lumbar and thoracic areas than those who had physiotherapy alone.

Influence of Whole Body Cryotherapy on depressive symptoms

Findings: Almost for each individual Hamilton’s Depression Rating Scale items, the overall score for all patients together was significantly lower after WBCT. The HDRS sum-score for each patient after WBCT was lower than that of the baseline and reached statistical significance in a paired samples t-test. Every patient was therefore considerably improved after WBCT.

WBCT increases parasympathetic outflow and decreases core body temperature

Findings: Results show that 3min of WBC to causes significant changes in autonomic balance which are induced by peripheral and central blood volume changes. Cryostimulation also induced changes in core body temperature, with a maximum drop observed 50– 60 min after the stimulation. Autonomic and thermal reactions to cryostimulation were observed up to 6 h after treatment and were not harmful.